Diarrhea is described as an increase in fecal mass, specifically volume, frequency or fluidity, and it is an important clinical sign of intestinal disease. Diarrhea as a clinical sign can be found with both small and large intestinal disease. Part I of this two-part series discusses clinical signs and diagnosis. Part II, which discusses treatment, will published next week.
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Alice Benedict, DVM, DACVIM VCA Shoreline Veterinary Referral and Emergency Center Many immunomodulating drugs have been developed over the past 50 or so years to treat immune-mediated disease and improve transplant success. In veterinary medicine most immunomodulation relies on chemotherapies such as glucocorticoids, azathioprine, leflunomide, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. As with many treatment modalities […]
Nicholas Cassotis, DVM, DACVO Port City Veterinary Referral Hospital, Portsmouth, NH The beauty of the cornea is in its clarity. This avascular, thin, anterior-most tissue of the eye serves functional and structural roles. Functionally it allows light/image entry and begins the focusing process of the image. Without clarity of the cornea image distortion occurs […]
Repetitive overuse of the psoas is a common yet under appreciated cause of mobility impairment in the dog. This article presents an overview of the pathomechanics, diagnosis, and management of psoas RSI in dogs.
Canine chronic hepatitis (CH) is a chronic inﬂammatory liver disease that without intervention, progresses to hepatocellular necrosis and ﬁbrosis/cirrhosis. A deﬁnitive diagnosis is made with histopathology. There are several known causes of canine hepatitis, including…
This article is a brief discussion of tarsal osteochondrosis including etiology and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis. It is a combination of literature review and editorial based on clinical impression.
The goal of this article is to provide awareness of some of the newer toxicities, their common clinical signs and basic treatment recommendations. An update on toxicology treatments is also provided.
This blog touches on the basics of fish and amphibian general anesthesia. Species anatomy and physiology will be lightly covered, along with considerations when choosing a general anesthetic agent.
Insulinoma is a relatively uncommon condition in our canine and feline patients. Insulinoma is more common in dogs than cats, but it is important to remember that it does still occur in our feline patients.
Traumatic wounds are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in small animal medicine, having a signiﬁcant impact on both the patient and the owner. This article discusses the management of chronic wounds.
Obstructive ureteral disease is a very frustrating problem in feline medicine. Causes of ureteral obstruction include ureterolithiasis, ureteral strictures, dried solidiﬁ ed blood stones, mucus, and tumors. Ureteral obstructions cause an increase in pressure that is transmitted up to the kidneys which eventually can decrease and even stop the glomerular ﬁltration rate of that kidney. Treatment of ureteral obstructions can include medical management, surgical management and interventional management.
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) secondary to external trauma or intervertebral disk disease is a common cause for paresis and ataxia in people and dogs. This article discusses the pros and cons of Solu-Medrol and reviews the veterinary and human medical literature.
The number of dogs and owners involved in canine sports in the United States has grown exponentially in recent years. The American Kennel Club reports that, in 2011 alone, there were one million entries for agility trials and 22,000 athletic events. This review article provides important tips on injury prevention in the canine athlete.
A 4-month-old female Labrador Retriever is presented for progressive lethargy and decreased appetite of 10 days duration. Her owners report that she vocalized while trying to stand this morning, and then would not get up. Review the radiographs. What’s your radiographic diagnosis?
As veterinary pain management becomes more like human pain management in offering patients a broader range of strategies for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, the interventional strategies and the techniques described below will become more commonplace.
Interventional pain management in animals is an application of image-guided procedures which beneﬁt veterinary patients with both acute and chronic pain. This 2-part series provides an overview of interventional analgesia in animals.
Urinary incontinence is deﬁned as loss of voluntary control of urination, resulting in leakage of urine from the urinary system to the exterior of the body. While UI has consequences for our clients’ homes, it can also cause signiﬁcant pathology to our patients. Timely diagnosis and control of this potentially chronic problem will help to ameliorate these concerns.
Body temperature is closely maintained in mammals around an optimal set point at which ideal cellular function can occur. This is a complex process that ultimately results in a balance between heat production and heat loss. The hypothalamus acts as the main regulator of this process with multiple sensors throughout the body.
A 1-year-old, spayed female Bernese Mountain Dog was presented to the Neurology Department for evaluation of a 4-day history of lethargy, stiff gait and neck pain.
Total hip replacement (THR) is the surgical substitution of a dysfunctional coxofemoral joint with a ball and socket prosthesis designed to mimic the mechanical function of a normal hip. This article discusses the indications, contraindications and pre surgical screening for THR.
Rachel Morgan, DVM and Sarah Allen, DVM, DACVECC Massachusetts Veterinary Referral Hospital, Woburn, MA Fielding phone calls regarding potential household toxicants and caring for animals experiencing related symptoms is a common part of both emergency and general practice. During any potential case of toxin ingestion or exposure, the first step is to obtain as much information as possible about the patient’s […]
Hypothyroidism is an uncommon disease in the cat. The most common cause of feline hypothyroidism is the iatrogenic form. Other less common forms include naturally acquired adult-onset primary hypothyroidism and congenital primary hypothyroidism.
Conjunctivitis means inflammation of the conjunctiva; a diagnosis of conjunctivitis does not help with a treatment plan. But if we can diagnose the cause of conjunctival inflammation, we are well on the way to a potential treatment.
Portosystemic shunts are the most common hepatobiliary congenital abnormality diagnosed in veterinary medicine. When a portosystemic shunt is present, the portal circulation enters directly into the systemic circulation…
Chronic mitral valve disease, secondary to myxomatous degeneration is the most common type of heart disease in dogs, accounting for over 70% of heart disease in canines. It has been known to potentially result in congestive heart failure in this species for over 100 years…
Eyelid diseases are very common in dogs, affect the function and health of the eye, and are the first line of defense! Eyelid disease are less common in cats, but are more serious.
A German Shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of gagging and labored breathing of two weeks duration. View the radiographs. What’s your radiographic diagnosis?
Hypoalbuminemia can be the result of numerous conditions including protein losing nephropathy, protein losing enteropathy, intra-thoracic or intra-abdominal effusions, liver failure, or severe hemorrhage. Prior to the availability of canine serum albumin
Epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) is an antifibrinolytic that can prevent excessive bleeding post-operatively, post-trauma, and in relationship to neoplasia.
Alfaxalone, marketed under the name Alfaxan® by a company called Jurox, is a neuroactive steroid with anesthetic properties. It recently became approved for induction of anesthesia in dogs and cats in the United States.
A 6-month-old, sexually-intact male English Bulldog was presented to the ER Department for acute onset vomiting for approximately six hours. What is your radiographic diagnosis?
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