Entries by admin

Current Diagnostic Approaches to Chronic Diarrhea (Part I)

Diarrhea is described as an increase in fecal mass, specifically volume, frequency or fluidity, and it is an important clinical sign of intestinal disease. Diarrhea as a clinical sign can be found with both small and large intestinal disease. Part I of this two-part series discusses clinical signs and diagnosis. Part II, which discusses treatment, will published next week.

Immunomodulating therapy in dogs: Beyond glucocorticoids

Alice Benedict, DVM, DACVIM VCA Shoreline Veterinary Referral and Emergency Center   Many immunomodulating drugs have been developed over the past 50 or so years to treat immune-mediated disease and improve transplant success. In veterinary medicine most immunomodulation relies on chemotherapies such as glucocorticoids, azathioprine, leflunomide, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. As with many treatment modalities […]

Corneal transplants

Nicholas Cassotis, DVM, DACVO Port City Veterinary Referral Hospital, Portsmouth, NH   The beauty of the cornea is in its clarity. This avascular, thin, anterior-most tissue of the eye serves functional and structural roles. Functionally it allows light/image entry and begins the focusing process of the image. Without clarity of the cornea image distortion occurs […]

Canine chronic hepatitis

Canine chronic hepatitis (CH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease that without intervention, progresses to hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis/cirrhosis. A definitive diagnosis is made with histopathology. There are several known causes of canine hepatitis, including…

Tarsal osteochondrosis

This article is a brief discussion of tarsal osteochondrosis including etiology and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis. It is a combination of literature review and editorial based on clinical impression.

Ureteral obstruction in cats

Obstructive ureteral disease is a very frustrating problem in feline medicine. Causes of ureteral obstruction include ureterolithiasis, ureteral strictures, dried solidifi ed blood stones, mucus, and tumors. Ureteral obstructions cause an increase in pressure that is transmitted up to the kidneys which eventually can decrease and even stop the glomerular filtration rate of that kidney. Treatment of ureteral obstructions can include medical management, surgical management and interventional management.

Injury prevention and the canine athlete

The number of dogs and owners involved in canine sports in the United States has grown exponentially in recent years. The American Kennel Club reports that, in 2011 alone, there were one million entries for agility trials and 22,000 athletic events. This review article provides important tips on injury prevention in the canine athlete.

Seeing between the lines

A 4-month-old female Labrador Retriever is presented for progressive lethargy and decreased appetite of 10 days duration. Her owners report that she vocalized while trying to stand this morning, and then would not get up. Review the radiographs. What’s your radiographic diagnosis?

Interventional analgesia: Part II

As veterinary pain management becomes more like human pain management in offering patients a broader range of strategies for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, the interventional strategies and the techniques described below will become more commonplace.

Interventional analgesia, part I

Interventional pain management in animals is an application of image-guided procedures which benefit veterinary patients with both acute and chronic pain. This 2-part series provides an overview of interventional analgesia in animals.

Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence is defined as loss of voluntary control of urination, resulting in leakage of urine from the urinary system to the exterior of the body. While UI has consequences for our clients’ homes, it can also cause significant pathology to our patients. Timely diagnosis and control of this potentially chronic problem will help to ameliorate these concerns.

Perioperative hypothermia

Body temperature is closely maintained in mammals around an optimal set point at which ideal cellular function can occur. This is a complex process that ultimately results in a balance between heat production and heat loss. The hypothalamus acts as the main regulator of this process with multiple sensors throughout the body.

Toxicology review & update

Rachel Morgan, DVM and Sarah Allen, DVM, DACVECC Massachusetts Veterinary Referral Hospital, Woburn, MA   Fielding phone calls regarding potential household toxicants and caring for animals experiencing related symptoms is a common part of both emergency and general practice. During any potential case of toxin ingestion or exposure, the first step is to obtain as much information as possible about the patient’s […]

Lids, the Prequel

Eyelid diseases are very common in dogs, affect the function and health of the eye, and are the first line of defense! Eyelid disease are less common in cats, but are more serious.

Canine albumin (lyophilized)

Hypoalbuminemia can be the result of numerous conditions including protein losing nephropathy, protein losing enteropathy, intra-thoracic or intra-abdominal effusions, liver failure, or severe hemorrhage.  Prior to the availability of canine serum albumin