End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring (ETCO2) has clinical uses far beyond solely determining hypo- or hyperventilation.
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The term acute abdomen refers to a patient presenting with acute clinical signs and abdominal pain due to a disease process of an abdominal structure. Read more about this common presentation in emergency veterinary medicine.
Want a low-cost, effective tool to reduce post-op complications? We give you…a checklist.
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and with the growing number of states allowing its use medicinally and recreationally, there is bound to be an impact on veterinary medicine.
Bacterial pneumonia is fairly common in vet med. This post provides an in-depth discussion of diagnosis and treatment.
Much of our education has been taught as dogma. This post reviews a list of common clinical myths involving cardiac disease with little evidence to support their validity.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is the only therapy that has the potential to change the immunologic response to allergens.
Premedication is the basis of a sound anesthesia plan or menu. Every premedication is composed of: tranquilizer and opioid, combinations of which
Appropriate arterial levels of oxygen are important for maintaining normal tissue oxygenation and therefore normal cellular metabolism and overall cellular function.
Interpretation of radiographs, or any additional diagnostic imaging studies, should be performed in a systematic manner to ensure evaluation of all structures and consideration of all possible diagnoses.
Use of dexmedetomidine in an anesthesia protocol can be nerve-racking at first, but with time you’ll come to appreciate its use in balanced anesthesia.
Half of all veterinary patients present emergently in pain, especially dogs presenting with orthopedic or neurosurgical conditions, yet rapid and accurate identification and scoring of pain remains challenging.
The objective of the Lifelong Care initiative is to support pet, pet owner, and veterinary practice wellness.
Though there are many types of pain that exist in our patients, all of those who present for a procedure where pain needs to be treated should be assessed for the presence and/or potential for inflammatory pain!
Locoregional nerve blockade provides pain control and comfort, lowered inhalant concentrations, difficult tissue handling, and reduced postop inflammation.
This blog post will focus will be on relationship-centered communication, rather than a paternalistic approach.
Canine osteoarthritis (OA) is a well characterized chronic disease, but he same cannot be said for feline osteoarthritis. This article discusses what we currently know about feline OA.
In this post, Stephen Cital discusses the Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter by Masimo Corp., the only FDA-approved non-invasive CO2-oximeter marketed for veterinary use.
Tooth resorption is the progressive destruction of the calcified substance of permanent teeth by clastic cells. It can be extremely painful and is one of the most common oral diseases seen in cats. It is also frequently found in dogs.
There’s much more to dentistry than routine cleaning. Check out this post describing commonly-encountered tooth disorders.
Fluid therapy is a crucial part of the treatment of patients in the emergency room and the critical care unit. Though it has great ability to help our patients, like any medical intervention, it has the potential to do harm as well. Having a greater understanding of the fluid balance within the body, the effect of different disease states on this fluid balance, and the fluid choices available for treating our patients is vital to maximizing patient benefit, while minimizing side effects of therapy.
Synthetic colloids are a combination of water, electrolytes and large molecular weight molecules that contribute to the oncotic force (colloid osmotic pressure, COP) of the intravascular space. This post covers the pros and cons of their use.
This post reviews the pillars of patient blood management, including maximizing red cell mass, optimizing hemostasis, and techniques to recover active hemorrhage.
Corneal ulceration is one of the most common ophthalmic problems seen in our canine and feline patients. This post covers the causes and diagnosis of corneal ulceration in dogs and cat, as well as medical and surgical treatment.
With improved imaging techniques, the number of adrenal masses detected in animals with problems unrelated to adrenal function is common.
One of the most common causes of spinal cord injury in dogs is intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). This post updates the use of methylprednisolone and PEG in the treatment of spinal cord injury.
This post describes how to manipulate user controls to obtain better ultrasound images in veterinary medicine.
This post describes the use and pros/cons of H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors.
Diseases of the head are often initially imaged with radiographs in the clinic. This article discusses the basics of feline head radiographic imaging.
With advances in human and veterinary medicine, new and innovative surgical techniques are constantly being devised, tested, and either discarded or adopted as the new standard.
With advances in veterinary medicine, we are more and more commonly seeing our pets living to a greater age than has been reported historically. Current estimates in the companion animal population indicate that there are more than 50 million senior and geriatric dogs over the age of 7 years. As such, advanced age in our pets and their associated illnesses have become a very important aspect in who and what we treat in our roles as general practitioners and specialists, alike.
Nicole Barrella, DVM Massachusetts Veterinary Referral Hospital, Woburn, MA Posted on 2016-10-18 Hemostasis The cell-based model of coagulation describes the three distinct, overlapping phases leading to clot formation as a result of platelet interaction with tissue factor (TF). The first phase, initiation, occurs when a TF-bearing cell, such as a sub-endothelial cell, is exposed to […]
General anesthesia provides us with unconciousness, amnesia, analgesia, muscle relaxation, and the ability to perform various procedures in our veterinary patients. The use of injectable anesthetic agents allows us to get our patients from premeded-awake to surgical plane of anesthesia, while minimizing the use of inhalant anesthesia and its associated cardiovascular and respiratory depression. This article discusses the more common induction single and combo agents.
Studies in human medicine over the past 30-40 years have shown consistent poor recall of medical information, with between 40-80% of all medical information being immediately forgotten. In fact, 48% of information that is “remembered” is either imagined or misconstrued. This article provides an overview of medical information recall studies.
Stephen Cital RVT, SRA, RLAT United Veterinary Specialty and Emergency, Oakland Zoo, San Francisco Zoo Posted on 2016-09-22 It feels like every year we are bombarded with new products that will “revolutionize” the way we practice medicine. A product called the V-gel® caught my eye as an exotics and anesthesia guy back in 2014. […]
In the emergency setting, the primary goal of diagnostic imaging is to help differentiate surgical from non-surgical conditions. The benefits and limitations of survey radiography and abdominal ultrasound are discussed in this post.
Hemoabdomen is the presence of free blood in the peritoneal cavity and is a frequent emergency in small animal medicine for dogs and cats. This article discusses nontraumatic and traumatic hemoabdomen.
The risk for anesthesia-related complications or death does not end when the vaporizer dial is turned off. In fact, it can be argued that the greatest risk occurs during the recovery period. Equal vigilance is required during anesthetic recovery.
The two most common types of congenital hepatic disease include portosystemic vascular anomalies (PSVA) and microvascular dysplasia (MVD, now technically termed portal vein hypoplasia without a macroscopic anomaly). The clinical course and treatment options differ depending on the underlying disease, and an accurate diagnosis is essential for future management and prognosis.
Intraoral radiology is an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. It is perhaps the tool that separates mere “cleaning and pulling” from more comprehensive veterinary dentistry.
An important task during enterotomy surgery is testing for leaks following intestinal closure. The instructional video below demonstrates intestinal leak testing with and without instruments.
Laryngeal paralysis is one of the more common upper respiratory emergencies seen in our aging canine population. It is frequently diagnosed in the spring to summer time as the weather begins to warm and we are more active with our canine companions.
Icterus is the presence of yellow discoloration of non-pigmented body surfaces (i.e. mucous membranes, sclera, skin) or plasma, and this results from an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood stream.
Lymphoma is one of the most commonly encountered canine cancers, and it is seen frequently in clinical practice. Lymphoma arises from neoplastic lymphocytes. Typically it is first recognized in lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, liver, spleen, bone marrow); however, it can be seen in any location in the body.
Summer is at full steam, birds are chirping, stir crazy dog-owners and their trusty companions are hitting the trail and basking in the glorious Colorado sun; however, they have company out there on those rocky foothills trails.
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE) is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fluid within the lungs of a patient without primary cardiac disease. It results from an increase in permeability at the alveolar-capillary bed coupled with an increased hydrostatic pressure in the vasculature surrounding the lungs.
It is common for dogs to be presented to their veterinarian for being “down” in the hind end, but it’s not always a spinal cord disorder. This post provides some tips for differentiating patients with spinal cord disease from other disorders, including non-neurological disease.
The short answer is fiction, “age itself is not a disease.” Many times I have heard, “why are we anesthetizing this 17-year-old dog?”, only to have them do amazing under anesthesia and be better than before.
With more and more veterinary practices transitioning to digital radiography, teleradiology consultations are on the rise. Ease of digital image transmission/submission, and quick turn-around times have greatly facilitated this trend in veterinary medicine. This article provides some tricks and tips that will help you get the most out of your teleradiology interpretations with fewer calls, emails, and repeat radiographs to follow up your interpretations.
Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is one of the most common autoimmune skin diseases in the dog and cat. This article discusses diagnosis and treatment of this condition.
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