Hypoglycemia: Gimme some sugar!

Glucose is an important nutrient required for basic cellular metabolism and is the obligatory source of energy for the brain. Many problems can arise when glucose is not regulated appropriately.

Management and care of neonatal dogs and cats

A team approach between the caregiver and the veterinarian must be taken to maximize neonatal survival.

Follow the wax

Identifying the underlying cause of otitis externa can be difficult. The PSPP system can help you work through the potential causes and also make it easier to discuss otitis with your clients.

Erythrocyte morphology: Getting the most from your blood smear

Microscopic examination of a blood smear is an essential part of the hemogram as it can provide vital diagnostic information that is not provided by automated hematology analyzers.

Cobalamin deficiency

Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency occurs commonly in both dogs and cats with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

Diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis - Enough with lipases already

Pancreatitis remains challenging to diagnose, especially since many patients do not present with classical clinical signs or may even be subclinical.

Client communication skills: Tools for better medical & business outcomes

Learn more about 5 core clinical communication skills: asking open-ended questions, reflective listening, eliciting client perspective, non-verbal communication, and empathy.

Thermoregulation in the ICU: To treat or not to treat?

In the face of disease, thermoregulation may be adversely affected. Knowing why the body is altering a patient’s core temperature is essential for the veterinary team to understand in the ER & ICU.

RECOVER CPR guidelines: What you need to know!

Clinically-relevant guidelines from the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) initiative for CPR guidelines

Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration Syndrome (SARDS)

Compassion fatigue is a complex phenomenon that can be prevented in most cases.

Current status with canine lymphoma: Diagnostics and prognosis

Lymphoma is one of the most common tumors of dogs and cats, representing 7-24% of all dog tumors.

A dark horse: Illuminating the price of compassion fatigue

Compassion fatigue is a complex phenomenon that can be prevented in most cases.

Cervical spondylomyelopathy

Cervical spondylomyelopathy causes a chronic, progressive gait disturbance, which can range from mild to severe tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia.

Thiamine deficiency

Dogs and cats are unable to endogenously synthesize thiamine so it must be obtained from the diet. Thiamine deficiency can occur via several mechanisms.

Challenges in diagnosing lymphoid neoplasia

Distinguishing polyclonality from monoclonality is key when determining whether a lymphoid population is reactive or neoplastic.

Update on leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease most commonly transmitted by infected urine contact with mucous membranes or abraded skin.

Tear film deficiencies: Quality vs. quantity

Qualitative tear film deficiencies refer to deficiencies in the stability of the tear film, caused by a deficiency in the lipid and/or mucin layer.

Alternatives to opioids in veterinary patients

Rehabilitation is the evaluation and treatment of functional problems or impairments, the latter of which occur due to aging, disease, trauma, or surgical intervention.

Periodontal disease

The extent of periodontal disease encountered in veterinary patients can vary from patient to patient and even from tooth to tooth in the same patient.

Scratching the surface: Management of corneal ulcers in the ER

Corneal ulcers are commonly encountered in the ER, thus adopting a routine approach to the management of ulcers is beneficial, particularly when considering the fast pace and variable caseload of many veterinary ERs.

Neurologic exam & localization

Performing a good neurologic examination with proper neurolocalization is critical for devising a suitable list of differential diagnoses with subsequent treatment plans with patients presenting with neurological diseases.

Cytology vs. biopsy: Comparisons of accuracy [Part 2]

In this week's post, Dr. Loar discusses cytology of bony lesions and GI tumors.

Cytology vs. biopsy: Comparisons of accuracy

This article reviews research performed by clinical and anatomic pathologists to assist clinicians who must determine the accuracy of results derived from cytologic specimens.

Introduction to rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is the evaluation and treatment of functional problems or impairments, the latter of which occur due to aging, disease, trauma, or surgical intervention.

Take a deep breath: The technician’s role in respiratory emergencies

Critical thinking is the essential first step in treating any emergency that enters your hospital. This is even more vital in the case of respiratory emergencies.

Chemotherapy for solid tumors: What is the evidence?

End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring (ETCO2) has clinical uses far beyond solely determining hypo- or hyperventilation.

I’ve got your back: Diagnosis and management of IVDD

IVDD is the most common spinal disease of dogs. This article discusses the definition of IVDD, presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis.

Riding the wave of capnography: Understanding ETCO2

End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring (ETCO2) has clinical uses far beyond solely determining hypo- or hyperventilation.

Imaging the acute abdomen

The term acute abdomen refers to a patient presenting with acute clinical signs and abdominal pain due to a disease process of an abdominal structure. Read more about this common presentation in emergency veterinary medicine.

Check 1, check 2...Is this thing on?

Want a low-cost, effective tool to reduce post-op complications? We give you...a checklist.

It’s getting hot in here: Heatstroke in dogs

Heatstroke is described as a form of “hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multiorgan dysfunction in which encephalopathy predominates.”

Lost in the weed: Marijuana toxicosis in the age of legalization

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and with the growing number of states allowing its use medicinally and recreationally, there is bound to be an impact on veterinary medicine.

It's getting harder and harder to breathe: How I treat pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is fairly common in vet med. This post provides an in-depth discussion of diagnosis and treatment.

Myths in clinical cardiology

Much of our education has been taught as dogma. This post reviews a list of common clinical myths involving cardiac disease with little evidence to support their validity.

Factors to consider prior to pursuing allergen-specific immunotherapy in canines

Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is the only therapy that has the potential to change the immunologic response to allergens.

Whiskey in the water: How to smooth anesthesia with the right pre-meds

Premedication is the basis of a sound anesthesia plan or menu. Every premedication is composed of: tranquilizer and opioid, combinations of which

Perioperative hypoxemia - What do I do?

Appropriate arterial levels of oxygen are important for maintaining normal tissue oxygenation and therefore normal cellular metabolism and overall cellular function.

Imaging diagnosis of common gastrointestinal and respiratory emergencies

Interpretation of radiographs, or any additional diagnostic imaging studies, should be performed in a systematic manner to ensure evaluation of all structures and consideration of all possible diagnoses.

Dexmedetomidine use in small animal surgery

Use of dexmedetomidine in an anesthesia protocol can be nerve-racking at first, but with time you'll come to appreciate its use in balanced anesthesia.

No pain-true gain?

Half of all veterinary patients present emergently in pain, especially dogs presenting with orthopedic or neurosurgical conditions, yet rapid and accurate identification and scoring of pain remains challenging.

Lifelong care

The objective of the Lifelong Care initiative is to support pet, pet owner, and veterinary practice wellness.

Inflammation: It's a pain when things blow up!

Though there are many types of pain that exist in our patients, all of those who present for a procedure where pain needs to be treated should be assessed for the presence and/or potential for inflammatory pain!

Do local blocks and epidurals strike a nerve in your practice?

Locoregional nerve blockade provides pain control and comfort, lowered inhalant concentrations, difficult tissue handling, and reduced postop inflammation.

Clinical communication skills in veterinary practice

This blog post will focus will be on relationship-centered communication, rather than a paternalistic approach.

Cranky kitties: Diagnosis and management of feline osteoarthritis

Canine osteoarthritis (OA) is a well characterized chronic disease, but he same cannot be said for feline osteoarthritis. This article discusses what we currently know about feline OA.

Non-invasive point-of-care monitors in ER/ICU and anesthesia

In this post, Stephen Cital discusses the Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter by Masimo Corp., the only FDA-approved non-invasive CO2-oximeter marketed for veterinary use.

Tooth resorption in dogs and cats

Tooth resorption is the progressive destruction of the calcified substance of permanent teeth by clastic cells. It can be extremely painful and is one of the most common oral diseases seen in cats. It is also frequently found in dogs.

Dentistry beyond dental cleaning

There's much more to dentistry than routine cleaning. Check out this post describing commonly-encountered tooth disorders.

Water, water everywhere: Fluid choices in the hospitalized patient

Fluid therapy is a crucial part of the treatment of patients in the emergency room and the critical care unit. Though it has great ability to help our patients, like any medical intervention, it has the potential to do harm as well. Having a greater understanding of the fluid balance within the body, the effect of different disease states on this fluid balance, and the fluid choices available for treating our patients is vital to maximizing patient benefit, while minimizing side effects of therapy.

Synthetic colloids: A friend or foe?

Synthetic colloids are a combination of water, electrolytes and large molecular weight molecules that contribute to the oncotic force (colloid osmotic pressure, COP) of the intravascular space. This post covers the pros and cons of their use.